Here are two of the round 1 puzzles from NZLO 2015. If you enjoy figuring these out, click on the links to other olympiad competitions below to download more puzzles. Click 'sample answers' from the menu to see the solutions.
Problem 1: Elder Futhark Runes
Old Norse was the language of the Vikings, the language spoken in Scandinavia and in the Scandinavian settlements found throughout the Northern Hemisphere from the 700s through the 1300s. Old Norse was written first in runic alphabets. The first runic alphabet, found on inscriptions dating from throughout the first millennium CE, is known as “Elder Futhark”. Below are nine Anglicized names of Old Norse gods and the nine Elder Futhark names to which they correspond. Listed below are also two other runic names for gods.
1. Match the Anglicized names to the correct Elder Futhark names.
2. What are the two leftover Elder Futhark names, in the Roman alphabet?
3. Write the runic names of the following gods:
(a) Tyr (b) Ran (c) Sif
Problem 2: Counting in Karelian
Karelian is a language related to Finnish (but not to English) spoken mainly in the Russian Republic of Karelia, in Tver Oblast and in parts of Finland. It has about 100,000 speakers. The table below shows the Karelian words for some numbers. Your task is to complete the table.